Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Malus domestica
M-type_MADS Family
Species TF ID Description
MDP0000120467M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000123808M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000123878M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000127771M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000129298M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000132226M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000132738M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000133671M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000134211M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000138447M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000143531M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000146415M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000148857M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000152718M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000152821M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000155389M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000159062M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000159587M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000162019M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000168914M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000185853M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000186558M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000186886M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000192342M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000192806M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000193129M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000193953M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000200272M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000205637M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000212925M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000216605M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000218227M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000221590M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000223851M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000228942M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000229755M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000232338M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000233843M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000233925M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000233926M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000234911M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000236438M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000237091M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000248130M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000251651M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000254632M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000259296M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000274606M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000277582M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000278770M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000285581M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000287530M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000289392M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000291070M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000296123M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000296791M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000299637M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000303501M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000307605M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000309181M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000311107M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000314058M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000314422M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000315688M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000315764M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000322264M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000378412M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000434703M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000449389M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000451827M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000462145M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000475549M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000518032M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000523644M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000599449M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000611204M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000664841M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000670559M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000696331M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000696333M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000713024M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000726295M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000753870M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000773068M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000783966M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000834768M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000846004M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000919323M-type_MADS family protein
MDP0000925348M-type_MADS family protein
M-type_MADS (M-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513